Hyperkeratosis is the process in which the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin gets thickened. This layer contains a protective protein coating called keratin in it which is responsible for protecting the skin from infection. The outer layer can become thick due to normal rubbing of the skin or due to pressure or injury on the skin. It can also be due to skin irritation caused by infection. Hyperkeratosis occurs in the form of body’s natural defense mechanism for protecting the skin against infection and irritating chemicals. Some examples of hyperkeratosis are formation of corns and calluses, and warts. All of them are inflammation of the skin in various forms.

Goldenhar Syndrome

Goldenhar syndrome is a condition that causes deformities on the face. This syndrome is congenital and is inherited by birth. It affects one side of the face, leaving the other side normal. Goldenhar syndrome is medically termed as Oculoauicular dysplasia (OAV). Study reveals that one out of every 45,000 births can have this sort of facial hypoplasia (asymmetry).


Gingivitis is a condition in which there is swelling of gums which surrounds the teeth. It is one of the common teeth problems in adults which affect the health of periodontal tissues. When gingivitis is left untreated, it can cause receding of gums which may damage the teeth permanently. The intensity of infection and inflammation may vary from mild gingivitis to severe form of periodontal infection. In severe cases, it may cause ulcerative gingivitis which is potentially dangerous to life.